Project Description

Scientific Studies

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Since the very beginning, Aqua-4D® has worked closely alongside some of the world’s leading agronomy universities in order to definitely verify the efficacy of its proprietary technology in a variety of settings. Now, after more than a decade, we are pleased to present here a selection of studies from various scientific institutions around the world.

Click on each study to expand, and request more detailed information, we will contact you.

 

Part 1 : General Studies and Collaborations

Research Institution:  Department of Energetic and Environmental Engineering, EMN – Nantes, France, 2009

Team:

  • Dr. Florent Chazarenc
  •  A-L. Biang, engineer student

Solution investigated: Zeta potential (physical property of water)

Main results: 

  • Significat reduction of the zeta potential : 50%
  • Improvement of sedimentation speed : +43%
Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Effect of electomagnetic waves on activated sludge settling efficiency

Research Institution:  Federal Office for the Environment FOEN, contract UTF 276.01.09, Switzerland, 2009-2012

Team:

  • LBE Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, EPFL, Switzerland – Prof. Christof Holliger
  • LOCIE Laboratory Optimization of Conception and Environmental Engineering, UMR CNRS 5271, University of Savoie, France – Prof. Gérard Merlin, Dr. Evelyne Gonze

Solution investigated:Biological depuration

Main results: 

  • Significant improvement of biological depuration of sludge: +40%
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Influence of electromagnetic water treatment to improve the biological depuration of sludge in wastewater treatment plants

Research Institution:  R&D project with 3 CNRS French Laboratories, France, 2012-2014

Team:

  • LOCIE Laboratory Optimization of Conception and Environmental Engineering, UMR CNRS 5271, University of Savoie, France – Prof. Gérard Merlin, Dr. Evelyne Gonze and Omri Noamen (engineer student)
  • CNRS G2Elab (Grenoble Electrical Engineering) Univ. Grenoble Alpes, France –Prof. Gilles Cauffet
  • LCMES Laboratory of Molecular Chemistry and Solid State, UMR CNRS 7140- University of Strasbourg, France – Prof. Marc Henry

Solution investigated: Biofilm reduction

Main results: 

  • Evidence of the Aqua-4D® VFL EMF propagation in water
  • Significant reduction in the biofilm development: 50%
  • Approach by Quantum Field Theory to explain the observed mechanisms

Article published in the Journal Water Research 83 (2015) 184-194

Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Hydraulic continuity and biological effects of low strength very low frequency electromagnetic waves: Case of microbial biofilm growth in water treatment

Research Institution:  R&D European project Eurostars with 5 CNRS French Laboratories, France, 2012-2014

Team:

  • EBI Laboratory Ecology and Biology of Interactions, UMR CNRS 7267, University of Poitiers, France – Prof. Yann Héchard, Prof. Christine Imbert, Dr. Julien Verdon, Dr. Jérôme Lesobre, Dr. Joanne Bertaux, Dr. Kevin Gravouil and Dr. Anne Mercier
  • CNRS-LCPME Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Microbiology for the Environment, University of Nancy, France – Prof. Frédéric Jorand, Prof. J-C. Block, Prof. Laurence Mathieu and Eng. Florence Gosselin
  • CNRS-LRGP Laboratory of Reaction and Process Engineering, UPR CNRS 3349, University of Nancy – Prof. Hervé Muhr
  •  LOCIE Laboratory Optimization of Conception and Environmental Engineering, UMR CNRS 5271, University of Savoie, France – Prof. Gérard Merlin
  • CNRS G2Elab (Grenoble Electrical Engineering), Univ. Grenoble Alpes, France – Prof. Gilles Cauffet

Solution investigated:Biofilm and limescale prevention

Main results: 

  • Limescale prevention in potable water: from calcite to aragonite structure
  • Progressive elimination of limescale deposits in potable water (curative treatment)
  • Significant reduction in the biofilm development: more than 50% (with river water)
  • Only a slight tendency to reduce the biofilm development with aggressive potablem water (very thin biofilm)
  • Modification of the water microbial community composition
  • Modification of the biofilm microbial community composition

Article published in the Journal Biofouling 32:3.287-299 (2016)

 Contact us for more detailed information about this study :Application of electromagnetic field to biofilm prevention in water distribution systems

Part 2 : Irrigation domain

Research Institution:  Agroscope Changins-Wädenswil, Research Station ACW, National – Competence Center for Nematology, Switzerland, 2010

Team:

  • Dr Sebastian Kiewnick

Solution investigated:Nematodes

Crop: Tomatoes

Main results: 

  • Higher plant growth and vigor
  • Less stress for the plant
  • Lower Gall index and lower eggs number = nematodes control and reduced
    damages on plants

Article published in the Journal Water Research 83 (2015) 184-194

 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Influence of Aqua-4D® electromagnetic treatment to remove the nematodes

Research Institution:  INRGREF National Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Water and Forests jointly with INRAT National Institute of Tunisian – Agronomical Research, Tunisia, 2011-2012

Team:

  • Pr. Mohamed Hachicha, INRGREF
  • Pr. N. Khamassy, INRAT

Solution investigated:Saline water

Crop: Potatoes

Main results: 

  • Higher yields: +20% with local seeds and +17% with imported seeds
  • Decrease in sodium content in leaves, stems, roots and fruits = significant decrease
    in sodium toxicity for the plant

Article published in the Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences (2016-Elsevier
Editorial System). Manuscript Number: JSSAS-D-14-00103R1

 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Comparative study on potatoes culture with Aqua-4D® treatment on saline irrigation water

Research Institution:  VOLCANI Center, Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Nematology department, Israel, 2012

Team:

  • Pr. Yitzhak Spiegel

Solution investigated: Biofilm reduction

Crop: Tomatoes

Main results: 

  • Higher plant growth and vigor
  • Better root development
  • Lower Gall index and lower eggs number = nematodes control and reduced damages on plants

Article published in the Journal Water Research 83 (2015) 184-194

 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Control of plant-parasitic nematodes using Aqua-4D®

Research Institution:  Higher Agronomical Institute of Chott Meriem, Tunisia, 2012

Team:

  • Dr. Bouthaina AL Mohandes Dridi
  • Pr. Najet Raouani Horrigue
  • Falfoul Karima, engineer student

Solution investigated:Nematodes

Crop: Melon

Main results: 

  • Higher plant growth and vegetation
  • Lower Gall index = nematodes control and reduced damages on plants
  • Increase in production: +42%
  • More efficient than Rugby nematicide
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Effect of Aqua-4D® electromagnetic water treatment on irrigation water on a melon culture

Research Institution:  CATV Centre for Technical Adaptation and Extension, jointly with the Hassan II Institute of Agronomy in Agadir, Morocco, 2012

Team:

  • Dr. Boujmaa SIRAT, Head of the CATV
  • Mrs. Zahra Ferji, nematologist at the Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II

Solution investigated: Nematodes

Crop: Tomatoes

Main results: 

  • Lower Gall index and lower eggs number = nematodes control and reduced
    damages on plants
  • Increase in production: +42%
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Study of the influence of Aqua-4D® on a tomato culture in a greenhouse in the presence of nematodes

Research Institution:  Water and Environmental Research Laboratory (WERL), Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Quds University, jointly with USAID and the Technical and Applied Research Center (TARC), Occupied Palestinian Territory 2012-2013

Team:

  • Amer Marei and Dia Rdaydeh, WERL
  • Dia Karajeh, USAID
  • Nawaf Abu-Khalaf, TARC

Solution investigated: Saline water and water savings

Crop: Bell-peppers

Main results: 

  • Higher plant growth and vegetation
  • Better quality
  • Increase in nutrients absorption
  • Water savings: 15%
  • Increase in production: +20%

Article published in the Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A4 (2014) 830-838 

 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Effect of Using Electromagnetic Brackish Water on Irrigated Bell Pepper Crop

Research Institution:  INRGREF National Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Water and Forests, Tunisia, 2013

Team:

  •  Pr. Mohamed Hachicha

Solution investigated: Saline water

Crop: Maize seeds

Main results: 

  • Faster germination
  • Higher germination rate: between 10 and 25% according to the Aqua-4D®
    treatment time and salinity of water samples

Article published in the Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences (2016-Elsevier
Editorial System). Manuscript Number: JSSAS-D-14-00103R1

 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Effect of Aqua-4D® treated water on germination of maize seeds

Research Institution:  CRRA Regional Center for Agronomical Research, jointly with INRGREF, Tunisia, 2013

Team:

  • Pr. Hajlaoui Hichem, CRRA
  • Pr. Borgi Ziad, CRRA
  • Pr. Mohamed Hachicha, INRGREF

Solution investigated: Saline water

Crop: Tomatoes

Main results: 

  • Higher plant growth
  • Better quality
  • Higher yields: +96% (close to yields with potable water)
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Electromagnetic water treatment of saline irrigation water: impact on the growth and the yields of a tomato culture

Research Institution:  Higher Agronomical Institute ISA Chott Meriem, Tunisia, 2013

Team:

  • Dr. Bouthaina AL Mohandes Dridi
  • Pr Najet Raouani Horrigue
  • Mabrouk Amina, engineer student

Solution investigated: Nematodes

Crop: Melon

Main results: 

  • Higher plant growth and vegetation
  • Better root development
  • Better fruit quality
  • Increase in production: +6%
  • No significant effect on nematodes (Gall index) due to a severe initial infestation
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study :Effect of Aqua-4D® electromagnetic water treatment on irrigation water on a melon culture

Research Institution:  INRGREF National Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Water and Forests, Tunisia, 2013

Team:

  • Pr. Mohamed Hachicha
  • Besma Kahlaoui, engineer student

Solution investigated: Saline water

Crop: Tomatoes

Main results: 

  • Higher plant growth and vegetation
  • Better root development
  • Better fruit quality
  • Reduction of salt content in the soil (in the rhizosphere)
  • Higher nutrients absorption (phosphorus, potassium)
  • Decrease in sodium content in the plants
  • Increase in production: +80% Rio Grande and +85% Heinz-2274 (close to the yields with potable water)
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Comparative study on tomatoes culture with Aqua-4D® treatment on saline irrigation water

Research Institution:  ICA Iber Carthage Agro, Tunisia, 2013-2015

Team:

  • Mamdouh Trabelsi

Solution investigated: Saline wate – Salt saturated soils

Crop: Vineyard

Main results: 

  • Higher plant growth, vigor and vegetation
  • Higher length and volume of bunch of grapes: 15-20%
  • Class grapes slightly improved
  • Decrease in salt conductivity of the soil
  • Increase in production: +15%
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Effect of Aqua-4D® irrigated saline water on quality and yields of vineyard with salt saturated soil

Research Institution:  INRGREF National Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Water and Forests, Tunisia, 2014-2015

Team:

  • Pr. Mohamed Hachicha
  • Ghada Azouzi, engineer student
  • Ines Ben Hamida, engineer student

Solution investigated:Salt saturated soil

Crop: no culture – study on soil behavior

Main results: 

  • Significant improvement of the leaching effect, whatever the salt concentration of water (5 dosages between EC 1 to 18 dS/m)
  • Improvement of soil water retention: +10%
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Investigation on the leaching effect of Aqua-4D® irrigated treated water

Research Institution:  Arava Development Company, Zohar Research Center, Israel, 2015-2016

Team:

  • Dr. Effi Tripler

Solution investigated: Saline water

Crop: Melons

Main results: 

  • A reduced uptake of sodium and chloride
  • An increased production yields
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Effect of electromagnetic treatment of irrigation water on melons grown in the Arava valley  

Research Institution:  UIB University of the Balearic Islands, Research Group on Plant – Biology under Mediterranean Conditions, Spain, 2015-2016

Team:

  • Dr. Hipólito Medrano Gil
  • Dra Josefina Bota Salort

Solution investigated:Water savings

Crop: Tomatoes

Main results: 

  • Improvement of production yield: +10%
  • Improvement of all quality criteria:
    o Brix +12%
    o Firmness +35%
    o Total titrable acidity +42%
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Influence of Aqua-4D® treatment on the plant growth, water use and water use efficiency in greenhouse irrigated crops  

Research Institution:  Embrapa Semiárido – Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, Brazil, 2016

Team:

  • José Mauro, Embrapa, Phyto pathologist, Nematologist

Solution investigated:Nematodes (Meloidogyne enterolobii)

Crop: Guava

Main results: 

  • All trees that were attacked by nematodes have recovered a good shape and are now able to produce fruits
Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Effect of electromagnetic treatment of irrigation water, on nematodes attacking guava trees  

Research Institution:  INRGREF National Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Water and Forests, Tunisia, 2016 2018

Team:

  • Prof. Mohamed Hachicha, INRGREF
  • Malek Moussa, PhD Student

Solution investigated: Saline water, Treated wastewater

Crop: Maize

Main results: 

The preliminary results obtained show that the electromagnetic treatment of treated
wastewater allows:

  •  An increase in drained volumes
  • A better export of certain salts, heavy metals and germs of fecal contamination
    outside the root zone.

As for the germination test of barley seeds, it has been demonstrated that Aqua-4D® induces a rapid germination of the seeds, an increase in the germination rate and an increase of the length of roots and epicotyls.

 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Effect of electromagnetic treatment on treated wastewater used for irrigation  

Research Institution:  Mediplant – Swiss research institute for aromatic and medicinalplants, Switzerland, 2016

Team:

  • Xavier Simonnet R&D Manager

Solution investigated: Saline water

Crop: Basil

Main results: 

  • A significant increase of 10% in the yield of dry leaves
  •  P and Ca contents of the leaves are significantly higher
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Effect of the Aqua-4D® on the development of basil in soilless cultivation with 2 levels of irrigation water salinity  

Research Institution:  UNESP – Faculty of agricultural and veterinary sciences – Campus of Jaboticabal – Department of Plant Protection – Brazil, 2016

Team:

  •  Prof. Dr. Pedro Soares – Nematologist

Solution investigated: Nematodes

Crop: Soybean

Main results: 

  • Under the conditions of this study, for evaluated doses, no injury was found on the germination of seeds
  • Reduction of the population of Pratylenchus brachyurus nematodes
  • Reduction of the population of Meloidogyne javanica eggs
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Effect of electromagnetic treatment of irrigation water in the control and development of soybean nematodes

Research Institution:  INRGREF National Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Water and Forests, Tunisia, 2016-2018

Team:

  • Prof. Mohamed Hachicha, INRGREF
  • Mohamed BOUHLEL, Mater Student

Solution investigated:Saline water

Crop: Soil only, without plants

Main results: 

  • The volumes of drainage water from electromagnetically treated irrigation water are significantly higher and the salt concentrations are also higher
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Evaluation of the effect of Aqua-4D on the leaching of salts in soils according to: the salinity of irrigation water and the dose of irrigation water

Research Institution:  INRGREF National Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Water and Forests jointly with INRAT National Institute of Tunisian Agronomical Research, Tunisia, 2017-2018

Team:

  • Prof. Mohamed Hachicha, INRGREF
  • Mohamed BOUHLEL, Mater Student

Solution investigated: 

Crop:

Main results: 

  • Study in progress
Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Effect of Aqua-4D on the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizers

Research Institution:  IFAPA – Andalusian Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries – Research and Training, Spain, 2017 – 2018

Team:

  • Evangelina Medrano Cortes, Coordinadora de Ingeneria

Solution investigated:Crop yield and quality improvement

Crop: Tomatoes

Main results: 

  • Study in progress
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Water treatment system AQUA4D to improve nutrient uptake and soil structure

Research Institution:  Mediplant – Swiss research institute for aromatic and medicinal plants, Switzerland, 2018

Team:

  •  Xavier Simonnet R&D Manager

Solution investigated: Saline water

Crop: Basil

Main results: 

  • Study in progress
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : Effect of the Aqua-4D® on the development of basil in soilless cultivation irrigated with saline water

Research Institution:  ICWT – International Center for Water Technology, California – United Sates, 2018

Team:

  • Dave Goorahoo, Associate Professor
  • Charles Cochran, Research assistant / Graduate student

Solution investigated: Saline water

Crop: Soil without plants

Main results: 

  • Study in progress
 Contact us for more detailed information about this study : To determine if Aqua 4D water treatment increases leaching of salts from soil compared to a control and to provide a comparison of the hydraulic conductivity of treated and untreated water

Research Institution:  WUR – Wageningen University & Research – Business Unit Greenhouse Horticulture, Netherlands, 2018 – 2019

Team:

  • Annemieke van der Wal, Chris Blok, Tycho Vermeulen, Ellen Beerling (WUR Greenhouse Horticulture), Luc Hornstra, Marcel Paalman (KWR)

Solution investigated: Biofilms

Crop: TDB

Main results: 

  • Study in progress

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